We have started to develop a number of "

Continuum" activities. In these activities, students are given basic knowledge questions on cards from an envelope. On each card there is one type of question. When the student completes a set number of questions on their card correctly, then they replace that card and grab a new card from the next envelope. This next envelop will typically have problems of a similar (to each other) type but incrementally more difficult than the previous envelope. In this way students move from simpler to more difficult questions at their own pace. The cards start with Quotient and Reciprocal Identities, then move to Pythagorean, then to progressively more difficult mixed identities and finally a card where they make their own.

We've created two versions. One where all the equations are identities and one where some of them are not. Typically when we have done these, students could check their answers by using a UV pen to reveal the answers written on the answer cards (see example from our

fraction continuum to the right). Because these are identities we chose to have the two sets so if you use set one, students just verify that they are identities. However, if you use set two, students will have to figure out which ones are and which are not identities. So on this second set you could have cards that have the invisible ink that verify which are the identities.

- MCR3U - 1.5 prove simple trigonometric identities, using the Pythagorean identity sin
^{2}(x) + cos^{2}(x) = 1; the quotient identity tan(x) = sin(x)/cos(x); and the reciprocal identities sec(x) = 1/cos(x), csc(x) = 1/sin(x) , and cot(x) = 1/tan(x)
- MHF4U - As review

- Enough copies of each of the question cards for your class (there are six cards per page at each level) in different colour card stock for each level, laminated (use colours that allow seeing the magic pen writing - you may want to test this). You will likely not need as many cards in the last few envelopes as students work at different paces.
- If you are using the set with the non-identities then you should have 3 sets of the answer cards (use magic pen to write the answers anywhere along each equation - the answers are on the last page of the Google Doc). The answer cards are the same as the question cards but you write the answers in invisible ink on them. To help distinguish the answer cards to the question cards you should put a stamp or sticker on the back. Write on the cards first then laminate them. If you write on the card after lamination then the ink tends to wear off. There are sample solutions at the end of each document. That is for you to carry around (or not) but not for showing students but more for your reference.
- 3 "magic" pens can be purchased at Chapters/Indigo or we found these at a Scholastic's book fair. We have since purchased some on eBay or Amazon.

- Place the questions in piles (or in envelopes taped to the wall) in order of difficulty and set up three stations for the answer cards (if you are using the ones with non-identities). Students will get a card and answer the first 4 questions.
- Normally we might have students start at different places but because of the fact that there are different identities on each card, students should start at the first envelope.
- If they are using the set with non-identities, to check their answers, they will go to a station and use the magic pens. Students may decide to do one question at a time and then go check their answer or they may do all 4 and then check. Students are monitoring themselves so they decide. If they get the first 4 right, they have a level of mastery to move themselves to the next card. If not there are more questions on the card until they master that type. You can decide whether you want them to do the other 4 or just do enough to get a total of four correct.
- As they move through the continuum, the hope is that they reach level 4 which matches the grade 11 curriculum. You may wish to have them do all the questions on that card.
- The fifth level is set up to challenge students who are moving forward quickly. Here they create their own question.

Note that we have been having some issues with Google Docs reformatting the cards depending on what machine or browser you are using. So you may have to reformat when you make your own copy. For a good version, just use the PDFs.

Did you use this activity? Do you have a way to make it better? If so tell us in the comment section. Thanks